Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
One of the possible problems for patients during surgical operations is that their body temperature falls. There are a variety of ways to prevent this, and a new Cochrane Review from April 2015 looks at one of these, the use of intravenous and irrigation fluids. Gillian Campbell, a consultant anaesthetist at Ninewells Hospital in Dundee in Scotland, and lead author for the review tells us more.
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of the effects of treatments, are some that examine interventions to help with medical procedures. Among these is an April 2015 review of preoperative ripening of the cervix before an operative hysteroscopy. Haya Al-Fozan from the King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia describes the importance of this review and its findings in this Evidence Pod.
Since 1992, people have participated in the work of Cochrane for a wide variety of reasons. Since the beginning, the importance of involving people with the condition has been a well-recognised component in ensuring that Cochrane Reviews are relevant to decision makers. One such ‘consumer’ is Maxine Whitton who works with the Cochrane Skin Group, based in Nottingham England. She tells her story in this Evidence Pod.
Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle-related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years
One suggestion for reducing the pain of a needle injection is to suck a small amount of a sweet tasting solution. Its effectiveness for children aged from 1 to 16 years of age is examined in a Cochrane Review, which was updated in May 2015. The lead author, Denise Harrison from the University of Ottawa in Canada, tells us why they did the review and what they found, in this Evidence Pod.
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries, despite the availability of effective treatments. In the latest update of the Cochrane Review of one of the methods that might help in the delivery of these treatments, Jamlick Karumbi and Paul Garner have brought together the latest evidence on directly observed therapy. Jamlick, from the SIRCLE collaboration based in Nairobi in Kenya, tells us what they found in the review that was published in May 2015.
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group maintains the largest collection of Cochrane Reviews, covering a very wide range of interventions and actions. This includes some of the everyday aspects of life during pregnancy, and an updated review from June 2015 does this for caffeine intake. Lead author, Shayesteh Jahanfar from the Department of Public Health in University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, sets the scene and describes the evidence.
Cochrane Reviews examine the evidence on ways to help smokers to quit and to stop people from starting to smoke. In April 2013 one of these looked at school-based programmes that aim to prevent smoking by children and adolescents. The lead author, Roger Thomas from the University of Calgary in Canada begins this Evidence Pod by posing the question that he and his co-authors set out to answer.
Most of the reviews from the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group look at ways to help smokers to quit, but some of them explore how to stop people from starting to smoke in the first place. One of their updated reviews from February 2015 does this for family-based programmes that aim to prevent smoking by children and adolescents. The lead author, Roger Thomas from the University of Calgary in Canada tells us what they found and begins by posing and answering the questions that drove the review.
Cochrane Reviews cover a wide range of treatments across health and social care, and also look at ways to prevent health problems, sometimes with interventions that we might not think of as medicines or medical. In March 2015, the Cochrane Oral Health Group published one such review, looking at whether the use of the sweetener, xylitol, might prevent tooth decay. Philip Riley and Deborah Moore, from the Group based in Manchester in the UK, tell us more.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in adults with chronic kidney disease: a network meta-analysis
Anaemia is very common among patients with moderate or severe chronic kidney disease; and several treatments are available including iron supplementation, blood transfusions and synthetic derivatives of erythropoietin. In a Cochrane Review published in December 2014, Suetonia Palmer from Christchurch in New Zealand together with her colleagues, brought together the studies that have tested a range of erythropoietin drugs and she tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertlity Group has produced many reviews of the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, including a December 2014 overview of reviews. In this Evidence Pod, Carolina Nastri from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil describes the findings of an updated review, from March 2015, exploring the effects of a technique known as endometrial injury.
Smoking remains one of the world’s major public health challenges and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group continues to provide new and updated evidence on interventions that might help smokers to quit. Kate Cahill, from the University of Oxford in the UK, tells us about the May 2015 update of their review on the effects of incentives.
Cochrane Reviews examine the evidence for a wide variety of interventions, with the aim of helping people to make well-informed choices about therapies. In a new review from February 2015, Bonnie Meekums from the University of Leeds in the UK, and colleagues have looked at dance movement therapy for depression. Bonnie tells us more about the need for the review and what they found.
Strange as it might seem at first, trials can help people who volunteer to take part but then don’t actually join the study. Helen McNaught from Cambridge in England tells us her story, and how it changed her life.
One of the major challenges facing researchers doing trials is maintaining the momentum for recruitment. Valerie Smith a research midwife from the Health Research Board’s Trial Methodology Research Network in Ireland, tells us about one of her strategies, based on the power of tea.
The organisation of clinical trials is a challenge in its own right and a variety of types of research can help find the most appropriate ways to ensure that trials succeed. In this Evidence Pod, Helen McAneney, a Lecturer in Research Methodology in the Northern Ireland Network for Trials Methodology Research, in Queen’s University Belfast describes how network analysis might help.
If trials are to change lives, their findings need to focus on the outcomes that really matter to people making decisions about health and social care. One of the ways to do this is through the use of core outcome sets that should be used across all trials in a particular area of health. The COMET Initiative is helping to support this, and Liz Gargon from the University of Liverpool in the UK updates us on their work.
One of the ways in which trials might change lives is by including their results in systematic reviews. When this happens, we still need to know the best way to present this information to decision makers. Lisa Maguire from Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland tells us about a study that investigated this.
Successful trials require input from a wide range of people, beyond those who designed and are running the research. Patients and their practitioners are key and, in some cases, the parents or the carers of the patient might also be vital to helping the trial to change lives. Heather Bagley from Manchester, whose son has autism tells us their story.
As the population ages, the number of people with chronic conditions is ever increasing. Angela Coulter from the Nuffield Department of Population Health at the University of Oxford in the UK, and colleagues are looking at ways to help such patients have more say in their own health care. She describes the findings from their March 2015 Cochrane Review in this Evidence Pod.