Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
One of the most noticeable public health measures of recent years in several countries has been the ban on smoking in public places such as restaurants. A Cochrane Review is examining the health effects of these bans and it was updated in February 2016. We asked Kate Frazer from University College Dublin in Ireland, the first country in the world to introduce one of these national bans, to tell us about the expanding evidence base and the latest findings.
Dr Kate Frazer was awarded a Cochrane Training Fellowship and received funding from the Health Research Board, Ireland to undertake the update of this Cochrane Review.
Enhanced recovery protocols in people undergoing major surgeries of food pipe (oesophagus), stomach, liver and pancreas
A new Cochrane Review from February 2016, which was prepared as part of a programme of reviews funded by the National Institute for Health Research in England investigates the evidence on enhanced recovery protocols for major upper gastrointestinal surgery. Kurinchi Gurusamy, from the Department of Surgery in UCL Medical School in London tells us what they found.
Antifungal agents for preventing fungal infections in critically ill adults and children with a normal number of neutrophils in the blood
Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients, and an updated Cochrane Review in January 2016 examines the effects of antifungal agents to prevent these infections. The lead author, Andrea Cortegiani, from the University of Palermo in Italy summarises the latest evidence in this podcast.
Complementing a number of other Cochrane Reviews of ways to improve the prescription of medicines to people as they get older, the review focused on prescribing for people in care homes was updated in February 2016. David Alldred from the School of Heathcare at the University of Leeds in England summarises the latest evidence.
Interventions that facilitate shared decisions between primary care clinicians and patients about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections
Shared decision making happens when health decisions are made together by a clinician and a patient, and there are a variety of ways to facilitate it in different circumstances. In this Evidence Pod, Tammy Hoffmann & Peter Coxeter from Bond University in Queensland Australia, tells us about the research that they and colleagues brought together in a new Cochrane Review in November 2015 for discussion about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in primary care.
There are several Cochrane Reviews of the effects of exercise and the one for chronic fatigue syndrome was updated in February 2016. Jean Williams describes the review and its latest findings.
Many pregnant women have Vitamin D deficiency, and might consider taking oral supplements to counter this. In January 2016, Cristina Palacios from the University of Puerto Rico and colleagues updated their Cochrane Review of the evidence. She tells us more in this podcast.
Nephrotic syndrome is a chronic kidney condition of children, which is widely treated by corticosteroids. However, there is a lack of consensus on the most appropriate way to use this treatment and a Cochrane Review has been examining the relevant evidence for more than 15 years. In March 2015, Deirdre Hahn and colleagues from Sydney, Australia published the latest update of the review and she tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
Goal setting is considered a key part of the clinical process for adults participating in rehabilitation for injuries or chronic health conditions; but, does it work? A new Cochrane Review from July 2015 brings together the evidence and we asked lead author, William Levack from the University of Otago in New Zealand, to tell us what they found.
Major depressive disorder is becoming more common and is typically very difficult to treat, making the need to find effective treatments ever more important. In a new Cochrane Review from November 2015, Katherine Appleton, from Bournemouth University in England, and colleagues have brought together the evidence on the effects of omega-3 oils. She tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Haemodialysis is the most common treatment for kidney failure, but problems can arise with access to the patient’s bloodstream. A new Cochrane Review from January 2016 examines the evidence for preventing one of these problems, the development of a stenosis. The lead author of the review, Pietro Ravani, from the University of Calgary in Canada, describes the findings in this Evidence Pod.
Many women who have had children will suffer from pelvic organ prolapsed and a series of six Cochrane Reviews are being prepared relating to the surgical management. The first of these has been published in February 2016 and we asked lead author, Chris Maher from the Royal Brisbane Women’s Hospital in Australia, to tell us about the findings.
Benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in childhood, and the most common drug used to treat it is methylphenidate. Cochrane reviewers published the most comprehensive review of the evidence on its effects in November 2015 and the lead author Ole Jakob Storebø, a senior researcher from Psychiatric Research Unit, Region Zealand, Denmark, tells us what they found.
People who’ve had a traumatic brain injury are more likely to develop depression, and it’s important to identify the most effective treatments for them, bearing in mind that these treatments might not be the same as those for people whose depression was caused by other factors. A new Cochrane Review in December 2015 brought together the evidence for non-drug treatments and lead author, Paul Gertler from the John Walsh Centre for Rehabilitation Research in Australia, tells us more.
Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer taking tamoxifen to prevent recurrence
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of the effects of treatments, there are some which investigate interventions intended to reduce the side effects of these treatments. One such review, updated in December 2015, looks at the levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer who are taking tamoxifen. Irene Su, from the University of California in San Diego, USA, tells us more.
Around the world, approximately four million babies die every year before they are one month old, with almost half of these deaths occurring on the first day. In September 2015, a new Cochrane Review brought together the evidence on the potential benefits of standardised formal neonatal resuscitation training programs. One of the authors, Mohan Pammi from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, USA outlines the findings in this evidence pod.
Dysmenorrhoea, or period pain, is a common problem and several Cochrane Reviews from the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group have examined the effects of a variety of interventions for this. An updated review from July 2015 examines the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One of the review’s authors and also the Group’s Coordinating Editor, Cindy Farquhar, from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, tells us what they found.
Low back pain is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability across the world. The Cochrane Library contains several reviews of possible treatments and these were added to in July 2015, when we published a new review on the effects of Pilates. One of the authors, Leonardo Costa from the University City of São Paulo in Brazil, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Alongside its benefits, one of the unwelcome outcomes of exercise can be sore muscles and, so, ways to prevent or treat this might be important for athletes, whether they are professional or amateur. In September 2015, as the Rugby World Cup began, a new Cochrane Review examined the evidence on one intervention, whole-body cryotherapy or exposure to extremely cold air. One of the authors, Joseph Costello, from the University of Portsmouth in the UK, tells us more.
Cochrane Overviews bring together the findings from multiple reviews and one of the largest was published first in August 2013 and updated in July 2015. Cindy Farquhar, from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Auckland in New Zealand describes this enormous volume of evidence for assisted reproduction.