Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
Goal setting is considered a key part of the clinical process for adults participating in rehabilitation for injuries or chronic health conditions; but, does it work? A new Cochrane Review from July 2015 brings together the evidence and we asked lead author, William Levack from the University of Otago in New Zealand, to tell us what they found.
Major depressive disorder is becoming more common and is typically very difficult to treat, making the need to find effective treatments ever more important. In a new Cochrane Review from November 2015, Katherine Appleton, from Bournemouth University in England, and colleagues have brought together the evidence on the effects of omega-3 oils. She tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Haemodialysis is the most common treatment for kidney failure, but problems can arise with access to the patient’s bloodstream. A new Cochrane Review from January 2016 examines the evidence for preventing one of these problems, the development of a stenosis. The lead author of the review, Pietro Ravani, from the University of Calgary in Canada, describes the findings in this Evidence Pod.
Many women who have had children will suffer from pelvic organ prolapsed and a series of six Cochrane Reviews are being prepared relating to the surgical management. The first of these has been published in February 2016 and we asked lead author, Chris Maher from the Royal Brisbane Women’s Hospital in Australia, to tell us about the findings.
Benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in childhood, and the most common drug used to treat it is methylphenidate. Cochrane reviewers published the most comprehensive review of the evidence on its effects in November 2015 and the lead author Ole Jakob Storebø, a senior researcher from Psychiatric Research Unit, Region Zealand, Denmark, tells us what they found.
People who’ve had a traumatic brain injury are more likely to develop depression, and it’s important to identify the most effective treatments for them, bearing in mind that these treatments might not be the same as those for people whose depression was caused by other factors. A new Cochrane Review in December 2015 brought together the evidence for non-drug treatments and lead author, Paul Gertler from the John Walsh Centre for Rehabilitation Research in Australia, tells us more.
Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer taking tamoxifen to prevent recurrence
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of the effects of treatments, there are some which investigate interventions intended to reduce the side effects of these treatments. One such review, updated in December 2015, looks at the levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer who are taking tamoxifen. Irene Su, from the University of California in San Diego, USA, tells us more.
Around the world, approximately four million babies die every year before they are one month old, with almost half of these deaths occurring on the first day. In September 2015, a new Cochrane Review brought together the evidence on the potential benefits of standardised formal neonatal resuscitation training programs. One of the authors, Mohan Pammi from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, USA outlines the findings in this evidence pod.
Dysmenorrhoea, or period pain, is a common problem and several Cochrane Reviews from the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group have examined the effects of a variety of interventions for this. An updated review from July 2015 examines the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One of the review’s authors and also the Group’s Coordinating Editor, Cindy Farquhar, from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, tells us what they found.
Low back pain is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability across the world. The Cochrane Library contains several reviews of possible treatments and these were added to in July 2015, when we published a new review on the effects of Pilates. One of the authors, Leonardo Costa from the University City of São Paulo in Brazil, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Alongside its benefits, one of the unwelcome outcomes of exercise can be sore muscles and, so, ways to prevent or treat this might be important for athletes, whether they are professional or amateur. In September 2015, as the Rugby World Cup began, a new Cochrane Review examined the evidence on one intervention, whole-body cryotherapy or exposure to extremely cold air. One of the authors, Joseph Costello, from the University of Portsmouth in the UK, tells us more.
Cochrane Overviews bring together the findings from multiple reviews and one of the largest was published first in August 2013 and updated in July 2015. Cindy Farquhar, from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Auckland in New Zealand describes this enormous volume of evidence for assisted reproduction.
An updated Cochrane Review from July 2015 tried to answer the question of whether screening women for intimate partner violence (or domestic violence) in health care settings is effective. Lorna O’Doherty, a research fellow at Coventry University in the UK has been working with colleagues from Australia, the UK and US to review the evidence and tells us what they found.
Calcium supplementation (other than for preventing or treating hypertension) for improving pregnancy and infant outcomes
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group has produced hundreds of Cochrane Reviews over the last 20 years, and continues to prepare several new reviews each year, and keep the existing ones up-to-date. They published the update for the review of calcium supplementation during pregnancy in February 2015, and Nancy Medley from the Department of Women's and Children's Health at the University of Liverpool in the UK, describes the latest findings.
As well as trying to identify effective treatments for the cancer itself, Cochrane Reviews look at interventions that might help with some of the other challenges people faced when given this diagnosis, including fatigue and depression. Giovanni Ostuzzi from the University of Verona in Italy and colleagues have looked at the latter and their review appeared in June 2015.
Fatigue is a problem for many of those who survive a stroke and effective interventions would bring benefits to millions of people around the world. An updated Cochrane Review in July 2015 looks at the research that has been done and Simiao Wu, from the West China Hospital at Chengdu in China, who is currently at the Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences in the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, tells us what they found.
Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods
Cochrane Methodology Reviews investigate ways to improve the quality and efficiency of research studies, including data gathering. Here’s José Marcano Belisario, from the Global eHealth Unit at Imperial College London in the UK, to tell us about his July 2015 review of using mobile apps to administer surveys.
Stopping long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) for adults with asthma well controlled by LABA and inhaled corticosteroids
One of the questions that arises for people with well-controlled asthma is whether it’s better or worse for them to stop taking their long-acting beta2-agonist inhaler. Kayleigh Kew (left) and Rebecca Normansell from the Cochrane Airways Group in London UK are part of the team that have tried to answer this in a new review in June 2015. They explain more in this Evidence Pod, starting with Rebecca and some background.
The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group prepares and maintains reviews of ways to help people who harmfully use, abuse or are dependent on drugs, both legal and illegal. In a new Cochrane Review in May 2015, Catherine Darker from Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, and colleagues, looked at the effects of psychosocial interventions for treating people experiencing these problems with benzodiazepines. She tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
One of the possible problems for patients during surgical operations is that their body temperature falls. There are a variety of ways to prevent this, and a new Cochrane Review from April 2015 looks at one of these, the use of intravenous and irrigation fluids. Gillian Campbell, a consultant anaesthetist at Ninewells Hospital in Dundee in Scotland, and lead author for the review tells us more.