Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
Aspirin is one of the most widely used medicines and there are Cochrane Reviews of its effects for a wide variety of conditions. One of these reviews examines its use in in vitro fertilisation and an update was published in November 2016. Lead author, Harry Siristatidis from the Assisted Reproduction Unit at Attikon University Hospital in Athens Greece brings us up to date in this Evidence Pod.
Several Cochrane Reviews examine surgical techniques to repair hip fractures, and alongside these are reviews of other aspects of the management of people who have broken a hip. For instance, an updated review from November 2016 looks at nutritional supplements in the aftercare of older people who have had a hip fracture, and one of the authors, Toby Smith from the University of East Anglia in the UK, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
IgA nephropathy is a kidney condition, leading to kidney failure for many of those who are affected. About 10-20% of patients require dialysis or a kidney transplant within 10 years, and 30-40% within 20 years, from their disease onset. This long time between diagnosis and kidney failure makes it difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment. In August 2015, Marinella Ruospo and her colleagues from Bari, Italy updated their Cochrane Review of immunosuppressive therapies and she tells us what they have found in this Evidence pod.
Low-back pain is a very common problem, and a variety of treatments have been assessed in Cochrane Reviews. In January 2017, this collection was added to by Susan Wieland from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in the USA and colleagues, when we published their review of the effects of yoga for chronic, non-specific low-back pain. We asked Susan to tell us about the review and the implications of its findings.
The ear infection, acute otitis media, brings many children into contact with healthcare practitioners and finding ways to prevent it would have obvious benefits for the children, their families and the healthcare system. In August 2016, a group of researchers from Canada, led by Amir Azarpazhooh from the University of Toronto updated their Cochrane Review and he tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
Interventions for patients and caregivers to improve knowledge of sickle cell disease and recognition of its related complications
Sickle cell disease is a lifelong, inherited disorder which can cause complications throughout an individual's life. In a new Cochrane Review from October 2016, Monika Asnani and colleagues from the Caribbean Institute for Health Research at the University of the West Indies in Kingston Jamaica bring together the evidence on ways to improve the knowledge of patients and their caregivers. She outlines their findings in this Evidence Pod.
One of the most widely used devices in medicine is the central venous catheter, allowing direct access to a patient’s blood stream. However, it can cause infections and the use of antiseptics on the skin is one way to minimise this risk. Nai Ming Lai from the School of Medicine in Taylor's University in Malaysia has worked with colleagues to examine the relevant evidence and led the Cochrane Review, published in July 2016.
Alongside increasing efforts to deliver health care remotely, there is a need for research to assess the effects of these new approaches. In a new Cochrane Review from December 2016, Pawel Posadzki from the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine in Singapore, and colleagues bring together the evidence on automated telephone communication systems. We asked Pawel to tell us what they found.
Effect of molecular-targeted therapy on the progress and survival of people in the late stages of stomach cancer
Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Molecular-targeted therapy is one of the newer treatments and a new Cochrane Review in July 2016 looks at the evidence from randomized trials. Lead author, Huan Song from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Low back pain is a substantial health problem, and several Cochrane Reviews investigate interventions to help treat it. In a new Cochrane Review in January 2016, Bruno Saragiotto from The George Institute for Global Health, in Sydney Australia, and colleagues examined the evidence for motor control exercise. He tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
Is it safe to use lower blood counts as a trigger for blood transfusion in order to give fewer blood transfusions?
Blood transfusions are a very common medical procedure, and it’s important to balance the potential benefits and harms. In October 2016, Jeffery Carson from Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, in New Brunswick in the USA, and colleagues updated the Cochrane Review of research comparing different triggers for transfusing red blood cells and we asked him to tell us more about the importance of the review and its findings.
Diabetes affects millions of people worldwide, causing a variety of health problems, including foot ulcers. In a new Cochrane Overview in July 2015, Jo Dumville from the Division of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Manchester in the UK and colleagues bring together the findings from 13 systematic reviews. She summarises all this evidence in this Evidence Pod.
Patients undergoing dental treatment will often feel the discomfort of the gag reflex, and a new Cochrane Review in October 2015 sought out evidence on how to manage it. Lead author, Prashanti Eachempati from the Faculty of Dentistry at the Melaka-Manipal Medical College in Malaysia tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
The misuse of psychostimulants is a growing medical and social problem. A team of Cochrane researchers from Italy have looked at the evidence for psychosocial interventions in a new Cochrane Review from September 2016. One of the authors, Franco De Crescenzo from the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
The role of iron in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia in cancer patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
Anemia is one of the common side effects of cancer chemotherapy and it can be treated by a group of drugs called Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. However, these are not always successful on their own and iron might also be added. A new Cochrane Review in February 2016 examines the evidence for its effectiveness and lead author, Rahul Mhaskar, from the University of South Florida in the USA, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Can nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine and varenicline, help people to stop smoking?
The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group celebrated its 20th birthday in 2016 and continues to produce new and updated reviews that help people making decisions about ways to quit smoking. In May 2016, the Group updated its review of the effects of nicotine receptor partial agonists and we asked the group’s Managing Editor and one of the authors of the review, Nicola Lindson-Hawley from the University of Oxford in England, to tell us what they found.
June 2016 saw the updating of the Cochrane review on the effects of antibiotics for children with otitis media with effusion. We asked lead author, Roderick Venekamp, University Medical Center in Utrecht, The Netherlands, to tell us what they found.
Alongside several Cochrane Reviews of anti-cancer therapy for women with breast cancer, are those examining the effects of interventions that might help them after the completion of those treatments. In this Evidence Pod, Hayley Hassan from the Cochrane Central Executive Team, on behalf of the authors, tells us about one of these reviews, which compares different options for breast reconstruction and was published in May 2016.
Interventions to prevent delirium in hospitalised patients, not including those on intensive care units
Some patients who go into hospital develop delirium, which is a serious and distressing condition that can lead to poorer clinical outcomes, longer stays in hospital, and higher healthcare costs. It is important, therefore, to find effective ways to prevent it and an updated Cochrane review from March 2016 examines the evidence for a variety of interventions. Lead author, Najma Siddiqi from the University of York in the UK, tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
People with a wide variety of illnesses can experience symptoms of vertigo. Researchers at University College London in the UK published a new Cochrane Review of the relevant evidence for one possible treatment, betahistine, in June 2016. We asked James Handscome to speak with the lead author Louisa Murdin about the review and its findings.