Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
The misuse of psychostimulants is a growing medical and social problem. A team of Cochrane researchers from Italy have looked at the evidence for psychosocial interventions in a new Cochrane Review from September 2016. One of the authors, Franco De Crescenzo from the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
The role of iron in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia in cancer patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
Anemia is one of the common side effects of cancer chemotherapy and it can be treated by a group of drugs called Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. However, these are not always successful on their own and iron might also be added. A new Cochrane Review in February 2016 examines the evidence for its effectiveness and lead author, Rahul Mhaskar, from the University of South Florida in the USA, tells us more in this Evidence Pod.
Can nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine and varenicline, help people to stop smoking?
The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group celebrated its 20th birthday in 2016 and continues to produce new and updated reviews that help people making decisions about ways to quit smoking. In May 2016, the Group updated its review of the effects of nicotine receptor partial agonists and we asked the group’s Managing Editor and one of the authors of the review, Nicola Lindson-Hawley from the University of Oxford in England, to tell us what they found.
June 2016 saw the updating of the Cochrane review on the effects of antibiotics for children with otitis media with effusion. We asked lead author, Roderick Venekamp, University Medical Center in Utrecht, The Netherlands, to tell us what they found.
Alongside several Cochrane Reviews of anti-cancer therapy for women with breast cancer, are those examining the effects of interventions that might help them after the completion of those treatments. In this Evidence Pod, Hayley Hassan from the Cochrane Central Executive Team, on behalf of the authors, tells us about one of these reviews, which compares different options for breast reconstruction and was published in May 2016.
Interventions to prevent delirium in hospitalised patients, not including those on intensive care units
Some patients who go into hospital develop delirium, which is a serious and distressing condition that can lead to poorer clinical outcomes, longer stays in hospital, and higher healthcare costs. It is important, therefore, to find effective ways to prevent it and an updated Cochrane review from March 2016 examines the evidence for a variety of interventions. Lead author, Najma Siddiqi from the University of York in the UK, tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
People with a wide variety of illnesses can experience symptoms of vertigo. Researchers at University College London in the UK published a new Cochrane Review of the relevant evidence for one possible treatment, betahistine, in June 2016. We asked James Handscome to speak with the lead author Louisa Murdin about the review and its findings.
A February 2016 addition to the nearly 200 reviews from the Cochrane Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Group examines the evidence on lidocaine as a way to reduce the pain from using propofol to induce anaesthesia. Hayley Hassan, from the Cochrane Central Executive Team, describes the need for the review and its findings in this podcast, on behalf of the review authors.
The Cochrane Oral Health Group has produced many reviews relevant to the prevention of tooth decay and, in July 2016, they updated their investigation of fluoride mouthrinses for children and adolescents. Helen Worthington, Co-ordinating Editor of the Group from the University of Manchester in the UK and one of the authors of this review, tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
In April 2016, Sant-Rayn Pasricha from the MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the University of Oxford in the UK and colleagues from Australia and Canada published their new review on the use of iron supplementation by menstruating women, strengthening the collection of Cochrane evidence on the treatment of iron deficiency. He describes the latest findings in this evidence pod.
Which therapies are the most effective to prevent the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?
There is considerable interest in innovative treatments for adult polycystic kidney disease, in particular those treatments that might interrupt the biological processes that lead to cyst formation and kidney failure. It is important, therefore, to have good evidence of the effects of these treatments and, in a July 2015 Cochrane Review, Davide Bolignano from Reggio Calabria in Italy and colleagues examined the relevant studies to assess the effects on patient outcomes. Here’s Davide to tell us more.
Some patients who take pharmaceutical opioids to treat pain become dependent on these drugs, and might need to switch to medications such as opioid agonists. In May 2016, a new Cochrane Review brought together the relevant evidence on this and we asked Suzanne Nielsen from the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre in Australia to tell us what they found.
The typical Cochrane Review provides answers about the treatment of a disease but, occasionally, one comes along that tackles other major challenges facing society. One such new review in August 2016 looks at the evidence on various ways to prevent abuse in the elderly. Here’s one of the research team, Philip Baker from Queensland University of Technology in Australia to tell us what they found.
For many women with breast cancer, the use of post-operative radiotherapy will allow them to undergo less extensive surgery. In July 2016, Brigid Hickey from the Princess Alexandra Hospital in Brisbane Australia and colleagues published an update of their Cochrane Review examining the research on the size of the doses in which the radiation is given. She tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
For many women with breast cancer, the use of post-operative radiotherapy will allow them to undergo less extensive surgery. In the update of a Cochrane Review in July 2016, Brigid Hickey and colleagues from the Princess Alexandra Hospital in Brisbane Australia examined the research on the use of partial breast irradiation and she tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod.
Music therapy is used for a variety of conditions and several Cochrane Reviews examine its effects. A team of music therapists with expertise in the use of music therapy with medical patients updated their review for cancer patients in August 2016 and Joke Bradt from the department of Creative Arts Therapies at Drexel University in Philadelphia, USA tells us what they found in this Evidence Pod. She conducted the review with Cheryl Dileo from Temple University in Philadelphia, Lucanne Magill from Mount Sinai Hospital and New York University in New York, and Aaron Teague, doctoral student in the department of Creative Arts Therapies at Drexel University.
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group have produced several reviews of the effects of vitamin supplements for pregnant women. Alongside these, in March 2016, researchers from Australia, Brazil and Germany updated the review of taking vitamin A supplementation after birth. One of the team, Christine East from Monash University in Australia, tells us more.
Corticosteroids are a widely used treatment for asthma and a recent addition to the collection of Cochrane Reviews on this condition examines the research that compared different ways of using corticosteroids. Rebecca Normansell (left) and Kayleigh Kew from the Population Health Research Institute at St George's in the University of London in the UK describe the findings of this May 2016 review in this Evidence Pod, starting with Rebecca.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disorder of the nose and sinuses, and, in April 2016, the Cochrane ENT Group published a series of six reviews1 looking at the evidence on medical treatments in routine patient care. Carl Philpott from Norwich Medical School in the UK describes the findings of all six reviews in this Evidence Pod.
1 - List of reviews:
- Short-course oral steroids alone for chronic rhinosinusitis
- Short-course oral steroids as an adjunct therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis
- Different types of intranasal steroids for chronic rhinosinusitis
- Systemic and topical antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis
- Saline irrigation for chronic rhinosinusitis
- Intranasal steroids versus placebo or no intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of the effects of health care, a couple of dozen Cochrane Methodology Reviews assess evidence relevant to the conduct of research. In this Evidence Pod, Nancy Preston from Lancaster University in England tells us about her February 2016 review which looks for ways to help healthcare practitioners recruit people to research studies.