Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
Using a structured questionnaire (the IQCODE) to detect individuals who may go on to develop dementia
As the problem of dementia grows, so does the need to diagnose it early. Cochrane Reviews have examined various tests for doing so and a new Cochrane Review in November 2016 looks at one, called IQCODE. We asked lead author, Terry Quinn from the University of Glasgow in the UK to tell us more.
Liver transplantation is the main treatment option for people with severe, advanced liver disease, but it’s a challenging procedure that can lead to serious complications. The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group has produced several reviews to look at the evidence to help overcome these, and a new review from March 2017 examines immunosuppressive therapy to prevent the body from rejecting the transplanted liver. We asked the lead author, Kurinchi Gurusamy from the UCL Medical School in London in the UK to tell us what they found.
What are parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine early childhood vaccination?
Most Cochrane Reviews examine quantitative evidence on the effects of health or social care, but some review qualitative research to try to get a better understanding of and why and how interventions do or don’t work. In a new review from February 2017, Heather Ames, from the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo, and colleagues have done this to explore how parents experience communication about vaccination for children. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
In their first year of life, babies are likely to receive many vaccinations, which are vital for public health. However, the experience can be painful and distressing for the babies and their parents. In a new Cochrane Review from October 2016, Denise Harrison from the University of Ottawa in Canada and colleagues examined the research into whether breastfeeding might reduce this pain. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
A Cochrane Review that might be applicable to hundreds of thousands of human beings every day looks at the effects of early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn babies. This was updated in November 2016 and lead author, Elizabeth Moore from the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University in Nashville USA describes the latest findings.
Antipsychotic medicines are widely used in mental health settings and there are several Cochrane Reviews of their potential benefits and harms. One of the adverse effects is constipation and a new Cochrane Review from January 2017 looks at some of the treatments for this. We asked the lead author, Susanna Every-Palmer from the Wellington School of Medicine in the University of Otago in New Zealand to tell us what they found.
The Cochrane Library contains several reviews of interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease such as medications, diet and exercise. A precursor to trying these might be to assess a person’s risk and a new review in March 2017 looks at the evidence for using risk scores to do this. Lead author, Kunal Karmali from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago USA, tells us more in this podcast.
Up to 70 million people worldwide have epilepsy and there are many Cochrane Reviews of ways to treat it. These include reviews that work with the original researchers to gather data on everyone who was in their studies, to perform individual participant data meta-analyses. In November 2016, Sarah Nolan and colleagues from the University of Liverpool in the UK updated one of these reviews, comparing two commonly used drugs, lamotrigine and carbamazepine.
Venous thromboembolism is a common condition with potentially serious and life-threatening consequences, and several reviews from the Cochrane Vascular Group look at the evidence on interventions to prevent or treat it. In an updated review in October 2016, Yanzhi Song from Fudan University in Shanghai China and colleagues brought together the evidence on the use of pentasaccharides to prevent venous thromboembolism. We asked Yanzhi to tell us what they found.
Government regulation, training, or co-ordination of private for-profit health care in low- and middle-income countries
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of the effects of treatments, are some that look at the effectiveness of different ways of organising and paying for health care. In a new Cochrane review from August 2016, Charles Wiysonge from the Cochrane South Africa at the South African Medical Research Council in South Africa and colleagues examined the evidence for public stewardship of private for-profit healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries. He tells us what they found in this podcast.
Pulmonary rehabilitation for people who have been in hospital with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
In many parts of the world, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the second most common respiratory illness after asthma, and exacerbations and hospitalisations represent a major health burden for patients and healthcare systems. In an updated Cochrane Review from December 2016, Milo Puhan from the University of Zurich in Switzerland and colleagues have examined the latest evidence on the possible role for pulmonary rehabilitation following these exacerbations. Milo tells us what they found in this podcast.
Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) strategy for children younger than five years of age
Alongside the thousands of Cochrane Reviews of drugs and other individual treatments are some that investigate the effects of packages of care. One such review was published for the first time in June 2016, assessing strategies intended to integrate the management of childhood illness. We asked lead author, Tarun Gera, from SL Jain Hospital in New Delhi, India to tell us why the review is so important and what it found.
School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents
The sexual and reproductive health of adolescents and young people is important both for them as they enter adult life and for the next generation. School-based interventions can help with this and an updated Cochrane Review from November 2016 brings together the evidence. Lead author, Amanda Mason-Jones from the University of York in the UK, tells us what she and her colleagues have found.
The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group oversees the reviews of interventions to help people with alcohol and other drug problems. In February 2017, their review of the use of buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal was updated by Linda Gowing from the University of Adelaide in Australia and her colleagues. Linda describes the latest findings in this podcast.
The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group oversees the reviews of interventions to help people with alcohol and other drug problems. In May 2016, their review of the use of alpha two adrenergic agonists for managing opioid withdrawal was updated by Linda Gowing from the University of Adelaide in Australia and her colleagues. Linda describes the latest findings in this podcast.
Pneumonia is an especially serious problem for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and it’s important to know if vaccination can prevent it. In an updated Cochrane Review from January 2017, Julia Walters from the Cochrane Airways Group in Australia and her colleagues have reviewed the latest evidence and she tells us what they found in this podcast.
Renal vasculitis causes damage to the small blood vessels inside the kidneys and – when untreated – leads to a rapid loss of kidney function. Therapies that block the immune system to switch off the vasculitis process are available but can lead to serious infections and other long term complications. As vasculitis is uncommon, it has been difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment, because studies have often been too small to detect these effects reliably. One way to try to overcome this, is to combine the results of similar studies and, in September 2015, Giles Walters and his colleagues in Australia did this by updating the Cochrane Review of studies of treatments to induce and maintain disease remission for renal vasculitis. Giles tells us what they found in this podcast.
Topical antibiotics (applied to the skin) for preventing surgical site infection in wounds that are stitched or held together another way
One of the complications after surgery, is that the patient might develop an infection at the site of the wound. Clare Heal from the James Cook University in Mackay in Australia and colleagues have investigated the effects of applying antibiotics to the skin to prevent this in a new Cochrane Review, published in November 2016. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
Eczema is a common chronic skin disease that affects many people worldwide, and they will often turn to creams to help. In a new Cochrane Review from February 2017, Zbys Fedorowicz from Cochrane Bahrain and colleagues have brought together the relevant evidence from nearly 80 trials and we asked him to describe their findings.
Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates
Babies who are born preterm or have very low birth weight struggle to survive and need intensive care. Even if they do survive, they are at high risk of chronic lung disease and corticosteroids are one of the treatments used to prevent this. In an updated Cochrane Review from January 2017, Vibhuti Shah from the University of Toronto in Canada and colleagues have reviewed the latest evidence on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and tells us about it in this podcast.