Podcasts from The Cochrane Library
Diabetic macular oedema is a common complication of diabetes, in which damage to the blood vessels at the back of the eye leads to swelling. Lucentis, Eylea and Avastin are three antiangiogenic drugs that can be injected into the eye to treat the blood vessels and reduce the swelling. In June 2017, Gianni Virgili from the University of Florence in Italy, and colleagues, updated their Cochrane review of these drugs and used a network meta-analysis to compare their effects.
Alongside the several existing Cochrane Reviews of steroids for adults and children with asthma, in April 2017 the Cochrane Airways Group added a new review of interventions to improve adherence to these drugs. We asked Rebecca Normansell (left) and Liz Stovold, both authors on the review and members of staff with Cochrane Airways, to tell us more in this podcast, starting with Rebecca.
Several Cochrane Reviews examine the effects of treatments for sickle cell disease, which can cause a huge burden for patients and their families. In a new addition to these in April 2017, Jo Howard from Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals in London in the UK and colleagues focused on the drug hydroxyurea, which is also known as hydroxycarbamide. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
Statins are very widely prescribed to lower cholesterol and it’s important to know the best ways to help patients to take them. In an updated Cochrane Review from December 2016, Mieke van Driel from the University of Queensland in Australia examines the evidence, and she tells us more in this podcast.
The Cochrane Work Group prepares reviews of a wide variety of topics related to ways in which workers’ health and safety, and wellbeing could be improved. These were added to in January 2017 with a review of interventions intended to prevent bullying in the workplace. The lead author, Patricia Gillen from Ulster University in Northern Ireland tells us what they found in this podcast.
A range of injuries and disabilities can lead to stiffening in the soft tissues or muscles of the patient’s limbs, causing problems with movement, called contractures. One of the widely used treatments is stretch, but does it work? Lisa Harvey from the University of Sydney in Australia and colleagues tried to find out in an updated Cochrane Review in January 2017, and she tells us more in this podcast.
Cochrane Stroke is one of the oldest Cochrane groups and has produced nearly 200 reviews of various interventions for stroke and other types of brain injury. An update to one of these, in January 2017, examines the evidence on music interventions and lead author Wendy Magee from the Boyer College of Music and Dance at Temple University in Philadelphia, USA, tells us more in this podcast.
Fixed daily dose of a low molecular weight heparin compared with an adjusted dose of unfractionated heparin for treating blood clots in the deep veins
Venous thromboembolism is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in which a clot forms in the veins of the leg or pelvis or moves up to the lungs where it blocks a blood vessel. Heparin is one of the treatments and an updated Cochrane Review from February 2017 examines the evidence of its effects. Lindsay Robertson from the Freeman Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK tells us about these latest findings.
Most Cochrane Reviews focus primarily on the intended effects of interventions, but some are designed to investigate the potential harms. One such review was published in November 2016 to examine the effects of anti-epileptic drugs during pregnancy. The lead author, Rebecca Bromley from the Institute of Human Development at the University of Manchester in the UK tells us more in this podcast.
Root canal treatment is a common procedure in dentistry, and requires one or more visits to the dentist. In an updated review in December 2016, the Cochrane authors have brought together the trials that compared different numbers of visits and we asked the lead author, Maddalena Manfredi from the University of Parma in Italy to tell us what they found.
Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and medication for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
The single most common, preventable cause of in-hospital death is a hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism; making thi an important target for prevention when people are admitted to hospital. An updated Cochrane Review from September 2016 looks at the evidence for one of the possible interventions, a combination of intermittent pneumatic leg compression and drugs to prevent blood clots. Hayley Hassan from the Cochrane Central Executive Team, on behalf of the authors, tells us more.
Ataluren and similar compounds (specific therapies for premature termination codon class I mutations) for cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition, associated with mutation of a specific gene involved in the movement of salt across cells. One of the proposed treatments that targets a particular type of this mutation is a drug called Ataluren, which was the subject of a new Cochrane Review in January 2017. One of the authors, Kevin Southern from the Department of Women's and Children's Health at the University of Liverpool in the UK, describes the available evidence in this podcast.
Using a structured questionnaire (the IQCODE) to detect individuals who may go on to develop dementia
As the problem of dementia grows, so does the need to diagnose it early. Cochrane Reviews have examined various tests for doing so and a new Cochrane Review in November 2016 looks at one, called IQCODE. We asked lead author, Terry Quinn from the University of Glasgow in the UK to tell us more.
Liver transplantation is the main treatment option for people with severe, advanced liver disease, but it’s a challenging procedure that can lead to serious complications. The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group has produced several reviews to look at the evidence to help overcome these, and a new review from March 2017 examines immunosuppressive therapy to prevent the body from rejecting the transplanted liver. We asked the lead author, Kurinchi Gurusamy from the UCL Medical School in London in the UK to tell us what they found.
What are parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine early childhood vaccination?
Most Cochrane Reviews examine quantitative evidence on the effects of health or social care, but some review qualitative research to try to get a better understanding of and why and how interventions do or don’t work. In a new review from February 2017, Heather Ames, from the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo, and colleagues have done this to explore how parents experience communication about vaccination for children. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
In their first year of life, babies are likely to receive many vaccinations, which are vital for public health. However, the experience can be painful and distressing for the babies and their parents. In a new Cochrane Review from October 2016, Denise Harrison from the University of Ottawa in Canada and colleagues examined the research into whether breastfeeding might reduce this pain. She tells us what they found in this podcast.
A Cochrane Review that might be applicable to hundreds of thousands of human beings every day looks at the effects of early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn babies. This was updated in November 2016 and lead author, Elizabeth Moore from the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University in Nashville USA describes the latest findings.
Antipsychotic medicines are widely used in mental health settings and there are several Cochrane Reviews of their potential benefits and harms. One of the adverse effects is constipation and a new Cochrane Review from January 2017 looks at some of the treatments for this. We asked the lead author, Susanna Every-Palmer from the Wellington School of Medicine in the University of Otago in New Zealand to tell us what they found.
The Cochrane Library contains several reviews of interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease such as medications, diet and exercise. A precursor to trying these might be to assess a person’s risk and a new review in March 2017 looks at the evidence for using risk scores to do this. Lead author, Kunal Karmali from the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago USA, tells us more in this podcast.
Up to 70 million people worldwide have epilepsy and there are many Cochrane Reviews of ways to treat it. These include reviews that work with the original researchers to gather data on everyone who was in their studies, to perform individual participant data meta-analyses. In November 2016, Sarah Nolan and colleagues from the University of Liverpool in the UK updated one of these reviews, comparing two commonly used drugs, lamotrigine and carbamazepine.