Podcasts from The Cochrane Library

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Drugs for preventing dry mouth and problems with saliva after radiotherapy

Thu, 02/22/2018 - 20:45

Many potentially life-saving treatments have side effects that can have a substantial negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Therefore, alongside Cochrane Reviews that look at the potentially beneficial effects of treatments, are those that examine ways to reduce their adverse effects. One such review, newly published in July 2017 looks at ways to protect the salivary glands during radiotherapy. Review authors, Philip Riley and Anne-Marie Glenny from Cochrane Oral Health at the University of Manchester in the UK, tell us what they found.

Aerobic exercise for adults with fibromyalgia

Fri, 02/09/2018 - 19:55

The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group is producing a series of reviews of exercise interventions for people with the painful condition, fibromyalgia. One of these, published in June 2017, examines the effects of aerobic exercise training. In this podcast, Hayley Hassan, on behalf of the authors, describes the findings.

Methods to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene to decrease infection in patient care

Fri, 02/09/2018 - 18:51

Healthcare-associated infection is a major problem for health systems, causing concern, unnecessary illness and death. It is receiving further priority from policy-makers because it contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventative measure and the September 2017 update of a Cochrane Review provides evidence on the effects of various interventions. Lead author, Dinah Gould from the School of Healthcare Sciences at Cardiff University in Wales brings us up to date in this podcast.

Homocysteine-lowering interventions (B-complex vitamin therapy) for preventing cardiovascular events

Fri, 02/09/2018 - 17:37

In August 2017, we published the third update of the Cochrane Review of homocysteine-lowering interventions with B complex vitamins for preventing cardiovascular disease. The review investigates their impact on this common cause of death and we asked one of the authors, Mark Dayer from Taunton and Somerset NHS Trust in the UK, to bring us up to date in this podcast.

What factors influence the delivery of care by skilled birth attendants in low- and middle-income countries?

Tue, 02/06/2018 - 21:49

Despite recent improvements in maternity care, as called for in the Millennium Development Goals, many mothers still die during childbirth in low- and middle-income countries. As part of the efforts to achieve further improvements, a new Cochrane systematic review of qualitative studies from November 2017 looks at the factors that can influence a skilled birth attendant’s ability to provide good quality maternity care. We asked lead author, Susan Munabi-Babigumira from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health to tell us more in this podcast.

The autogenic drainage breathing technique for helping people with cystic fibrosis to clear mucus from their airways Primary tabs

Fri, 01/26/2018 - 15:12

More than 100 Cochrane Reviews of interventions for people with cystic fibrosis are now underway, with nearly ninety published in full. In October 2017, this list was added to with a review of the effects of a breathing technique called autogenic drainage. We asked the lead author, Pamela McCormack from Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool in the UK, to tell us what they found.

Calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal or tapering for kidney transplant recipients

Thu, 12/14/2017 - 19:47

When a patient receives a kidney transplant, there is a possibility that their body will reject this new organ and a variety of treatments are used to try to prevent this. However, these treatments can cause their own unwanted side effects. In a new Cochrane Review in July 2017, Krishna Karpe and colleagues from Canberra Hospital in Australia looked at the evidence for alleviating this for the group of drugs known as Calcineurin inhibitors. Here’s Krishna to tell us what they found.

Task-oriented intervention for children with developmental co-ordination disorder

Wed, 12/13/2017 - 14:57

Developmental co-ordination disorder is a common childhood disorder, which makes it difficult for the child to perform essential movement-based activities. One of the possible treatments is called task-oriented intervention, and a new Cochrane Review from July 2017 looks at the evidence for this. Lead author, Motohide Miyahara, from the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand tells us what they found in this podcast.

The co-authors of this review were Susan Hillier, Liz Pridham, and Shinichi Nakagawa.

Treatments for molluscum contagiosum, a common viral skin infection in children

Fri, 11/17/2017 - 21:55

The Cochrane Skin Group has prepared nearly 90 full reviews of the effects of interventions for a wide range of skin conditions. One of these was updated for the third time in May 2017, to present the latest evidence on the viral infection, molluscum contagiosum. The lead author, Hans van der Wouden, from the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute in the Netherlands, describes the latest findings in this podcast.

Unconditional cash transfers for reducing poverty: effect on health services use and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries

Wed, 11/15/2017 - 14:23

Most Cochrane Reviews examine the effects of healthcare interventions, but some look at other aspects of healthcare systems, such as how to help people access health services. In a new review in November 2017, a team of university researchers from Canada, Germany, India, New Zealand and the United States examine the possible role for unconditional cash transfers. One of the team, Sze Yan Liu from Weill Medical College at Cornell University in the US, tells us what they found in this podcast.

Interventions for prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in in vitro fertilisation cycles: an overview of Cochrane reviews

Thu, 11/09/2017 - 21:51

Some women who have ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction will experience an adverse effect called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, or OHSS. There are several Cochrane Reviews of strategies to prevent this and a new overview in January 2017 brings together the findings from these systematic reviews. The lead author, Selma Mourad from Radboud University Medical Centre in Nijmegen in the Netherlands summarises this large evidence base in this podcast.

The accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests for detecting typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 14:39

Point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests which use a small amount of blood are available for infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV, and make an important contribution to patient management. Cochrane reviews of the accuracy of such tests have influenced WHO policy and, in May 2017, they were added to with a new Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy review of rapid tests for typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. Lalith Wijedoru from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in UK tells us more in this podcast.

Psychological therapies for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents

Wed, 10/18/2017 - 13:41

Children who are exposed to trauma can experience serious mental health problems and a variety of psychological therapies have been tried to prevent these outcomes. In October 2016, Donna Gillies from the Western Sydney Local Health District in Australia and colleagues brought the evidence together in a new Cochrane Review and she tells us more in this podcast.

Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to slow down the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Wed, 10/11/2017 - 20:03

Age-related macular degeneration is a progressive and sight-threatening disease affecting the central area of the retina. Two updated Cochrane Reviews from July 2017 present the evidence for the use of antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent it or slow down progression. Lead author, Jenny Evans from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the UK tells us more in this podcast.

Note: the other Cochrane Reviews this podcast refers to is
Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Wed, 10/11/2017 - 19:57

Age-related macular degeneration is a progressive and sight-threatening disease affecting the central area of the retina. Two updated Cochrane Reviews from July 2017 present the evidence for the use of antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to prevent it or slow down progression. Lead author, Jenny Evans from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the UK tells us more in this podcast.

Note: the other Cochrane Reviews this podcast refers to is
Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements to slow down the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Different ways of giving antibiotics to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis

Fri, 10/06/2017 - 14:53

People with cystic fibrosis are particularly susceptible to chest infections, some of which can become chronic. It’s important, therefore to try to find treatments for these infections and an updated Cochrane Review from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group examines the evidence for the use of antibiotics. Alan Smyth, a Coordinating Editor for the Group, based in University of Nottingham in the UK, is one of the authors of this April 2017 review update. He tells us more in this podcast.

Vitamins and minerals for subfertility in women

Thu, 09/28/2017 - 21:06

Up to one in four couples planning a baby may have difficulty conceiving. Several interventions are available that might help and Cochrane keeps many of these under review. In July 2017, the Cochrane Review of antioxidants for female subfertility was updated and we asked one of the authors, Dr Rebecca Mackenzie-Proctor from the Auckland City Hospital in New Zealand to tell us about the rationale for the review and the latest evidence.

The effect of automatically generated reminders delivered to providers on paper on quality of care and patient outcomes

Thu, 09/28/2017 - 15:39

Alongside thousands of Cochrane Reviews showing the beneficial effects of certain healthcare interventions are some that investigate how to organize and deliver this care. In July 2017, Chantal Arditi from Cochrane Switzerland in the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine in Lausanne, and others updated one of these: a review of computer-generated reminders delivered on paper. We asked her to bring us up to date in this podcast.

Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer

Thu, 09/14/2017 - 20:19

For some patients with cancer, their illness is so advanced when it is detected that anticancer treatments might not be able to help. However, these patients might still benefit from palliative care and in a new Cochrane Review from June 2017, Markus Haun from Heidelberg University Hospital in Germany and colleagues investigated the effects of providing palliative care early after the diagnosis of advanced cancer. He tells us what they found in this podcast.

Treatment for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years

Thu, 09/14/2017 - 19:58

Several drugs have been shown to lower blood pressure in people with hypertension, but it‘s important to know the size of the benefit separately for young healthy adults aged up to 59 years and for those who are 60 or more. A Cochrane Review for the older age group has been available for some time, and Vijaya Musini from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada and colleagues in the Cochrane Hypertension Group published the first Cochrane Review for the younger age group in August 2017. Here’s Vijaya to tell us more.

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