Podcasts from The Cochrane Library

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Interventions for renal vasculitis in adults

Thu, 03/23/2017 - 19:57

Renal vasculitis causes damage to the small blood vessels inside the kidneys and – when untreated – leads to a rapid loss of kidney function. Therapies that block the immune system to switch off the vasculitis process are available but can lead to serious infections and other long term complications. As vasculitis is uncommon, it has been difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment, because studies have often been too small to detect these effects reliably. One way to try to overcome this, is to combine the results of similar studies and, in September 2015, Giles Walters and his colleagues in Australia did this by updating the Cochrane Review of studies of treatments to induce and maintain disease remission for renal vasculitis. Giles tells us what they found in this podcast.

Topical antibiotics (applied to the skin) for preventing surgical site infection in wounds that are stitched or held together another way

Thu, 03/23/2017 - 16:31

One of the complications after surgery, is that the patient might develop an infection at the site of the wound. Clare Heal from the James Cook University in Mackay in Australia and colleagues have investigated the effects of applying antibiotics to the skin to prevent this in a new Cochrane Review, published in November 2016. She tells us what they found in this podcast.

Interventions for renal vasculitis in adults

Thu, 03/23/2017 - 14:57

Renal vasculitis causes damage to the small blood vessels inside the kidneys and – when untreated – leads to a rapid loss of kidney function. Therapies that block the immune system to switch off the vasculitis process are available but can lead to serious infections and other long term complications. As vasculitis is uncommon, it has been difficult to establish the most effective and safest treatment, because studies have often been too small to detect these effects reliably. One way to try to overcome this, is to combine the results of similar studies and, in September 2015, Giles Walters and his colleagues in Australia did this by updating the Cochrane Review of studies of treatments to induce and maintain disease remission for renal vasculitis. Giles tells us what they found in this podcast.

Topical antibiotics (applied to the skin) for preventing surgical site infection in wounds that are stitched or held together another way

Thu, 03/23/2017 - 11:31

One of the complications after surgery, is that the patient might develop an infection at the site of the wound. Clare Heal from the James Cook University in Mackay in Australia and colleagues have investigated the effects of applying antibiotics to the skin to prevent this in a new Cochrane Review, published in November 2016. She tells us what they found in this podcast.

Emollients and moisturisers for eczema

Tue, 03/21/2017 - 19:18

Eczema is a common chronic skin disease that affects many people worldwide, and they will often turn to creams to help. In a new Cochrane Review from February 2017, Zbys Fedorowicz from Cochrane Bahrain and colleagues have brought together the relevant evidence from nearly 80 trials and we asked him to describe their findings.

Emollients and moisturisers for eczema

Tue, 03/21/2017 - 14:18

Eczema is a common chronic skin disease that affects many people worldwide, and they will often turn to creams to help. In a new Cochrane Review from February 2017, Zbys Fedorowicz from Cochrane Bahrain and colleagues have brought together the relevant evidence from nearly 80 trials and we asked him to describe their findings.

Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates

Mon, 03/13/2017 - 19:26

Babies who are born preterm or have very low birth weight struggle to survive and need intensive care. Even if they do survive, they are at high risk of chronic lung disease and corticosteroids are one of the treatments used to prevent this. In an updated Cochrane Review from January 2017, Vibhuti Shah from the University of Toronto in Canada and colleagues have reviewed the latest evidence on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and tells us about it in this podcast.

Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates

Mon, 03/13/2017 - 14:26

Babies who are born preterm or have very low birth weight struggle to survive and need intensive care. Even if they do survive, they are at high risk of chronic lung disease and corticosteroids are one of the treatments used to prevent this. In an updated Cochrane Review from January 2017, Vibhuti Shah from the University of Toronto in Canada and colleagues have reviewed the latest evidence on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and tells us about it in this podcast.

Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 16:44

It is generally recommended that babies should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, but most are given some additional fluids or foods during this period. In August 2016, Hazel Smith from Our Lady's Children's Hospital in Dublin and Genevieve Becker from BEST services in Galway in Ireland updated the Cochrane Review of the randomised trials and we asked Hazel to tell us about their current findings in this podcast.

Do tobacco cessation interventions provided during substance abuse treatment or recovery help tobacco users to quit?

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 15:35

Several dozen Cochrane Reviews examine the effects of methods to help people quit smoking. A new review in November 2016 adds to this evidence by considering interventions targeted at people with substance use disorders. We asked lead author, Dorie Apollonio from the University of California San Francisco in the USA, to tell us what they found in this podcast.

The accuracy of two imaging tests in detecting vesicoureteral reflux

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 15:04

There is considerable interest in detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children, a condition in which urine can flow backwards from the bladder to the kidney, and cause kidney damage. It can be diagnosed with a test called a voiding cystourethrogram, but this is invasive and exposes children to x-rays. It’s important therefore to find other accurate methods and a new Cochrane Review from July 2016 evaluated two possible alternative imaging tests as ways to identify children who have vesicoureteral reflux and are at higher risks of long-term kidney damage, but with less discomfort and radiation than a voiding cystourethrogram. The review was done by Dr. Nader Shaikh and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the USA. In this evidence pod, his colleague, Dr Stephanie Hum tells us what they found.

Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 10:44

It is generally recommended that babies should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, but most are given some additional fluids or foods during this period. In August 2016, Hazel Smith from Our Lady's Children's Hospital in Dublin and Genevieve Becker from BEST services in Galway in Ireland updated the Cochrane Review of the randomised trials and we asked Hazel to tell us about their current findings in this podcast.

Do tobacco cessation interventions provided during substance abuse treatment or recovery help tobacco users to quit?

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 09:35

Several dozen Cochrane Reviews examine the effects of methods to help people quit smoking. A new review in November 2016 adds to this evidence by considering interventions targeted at people with substance use disorders. We asked lead author, Dorie Apollonio from the University of California San Francisco in the USA, to tell us what they found in this podcast.

The accuracy of two imaging tests in detecting vesicoureteral reflux

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 09:04

There is considerable interest in detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children, a condition in which urine can flow backwards from the bladder to the kidney, and cause kidney damage. It can be diagnosed with a test called a voiding cystourethrogram, but this is invasive and exposes children to x-rays. It’s important therefore to find other accurate methods and a new Cochrane Review from July 2016 evaluated two possible alternative imaging tests as ways to identify children who have vesicoureteral reflux and are at higher risks of long-term kidney damage, but with less discomfort and radiation than a voiding cystourethrogram. The review was done by Dr. Nader Shaikh and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the USA. In this podcast, his colleague, Dr Stephanie Hum tells us what they found.

Managing symptoms in motor neuron disease

Wed, 03/01/2017 - 16:54

As the number of systematic reviews grows, there is an increasing need for overviews in which the findings from multiple reviews in the same general area is brought together. This happened for symptomatic treatments for motor neurone disease in January 2017 and lead author on this new Cochrane Overview, Louisa Ng from the Royal Melbourne Hospital in Australia spoke with Brian Dickie from the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association about the evidence.

Support for breastfeeding mothers

Wed, 03/01/2017 - 15:25

Several reviews from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group present evidence on ways to help mothers to breast feed their babies. In the latest version of one of these, in February 2017, Alison McFadden from the University of Dundee in Scotland and her co-authors present the latest evidence and we asked her to update us in this podcast.

Managing symptoms in motor neuron disease

Wed, 03/01/2017 - 10:54

As the number of systematic reviews grows, there is an increasing need for overviews in which the findings from multiple reviews in the same general area is brought together. This happened for symptomatic treatments for motor neurone disease in January 2017 and lead author on this new Cochrane Overview, Louisa Ng from the Royal Melbourne Hospital in Australia spoke with Brian Dickie from the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association about the evidence.

Support for breastfeeding mothers

Wed, 03/01/2017 - 09:25

Several reviews from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group present evidence on ways to help mothers to breast feed their babies. In the latest version of one of these, in February 2017, Alison McFadden from the University of Dundee in Scotland and her co-authors present the latest evidence and we asked her to update us in this podcast.

Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia

Wed, 02/15/2017 - 16:57

Cochrane has several systematic reviews about the management of patients in intensive care units, covering a wide range of interventions, and the update of one of these in October 2016 brought together the latest evidence on the effects of oral hygiene care. Helen Worthington, one of the authors on the review and Co-ordinating Editor of the Cochrane Oral Health Group at the University of Manchester in the UK tells us more.

Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia

Wed, 02/15/2017 - 10:57

Cochrane has several systematic reviews about the management of patients in intensive care units, covering a wide range of interventions, and the update of one of these in October 2016 brought together the latest evidence on the effects of oral hygiene care. Helen Worthington, one of the authors on the review and Co-ordinating Editor of the Cochrane Oral Health Group at the University of Manchester in the UK tells us more.

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